Main Article Content

Abstract

While globalisation is a multidimensional phenomenon, present educational foci tend to lie not on preparing students for a complex, globalised 21st century, but on preparing students for a 21st-century economic globalisation. In order to advocate a change of consciousness, this present study examined the concept of human flourishing and the skills – referred to as cosmopolitan soft skills – fostering the phenomenon. The theoretical analysis undertaken by the study identified flourishing to be a three-dimensional concept and established that flourishing cannot be fully realised unless an individual is flourishing from a positive-psychological, a moral-political, as well as from a moral-ethical perspective. The empirical analysis eventuated a comprehensive list of skills and competences that contemporary educational institutions aim at equipping their students with for the sake of flourishing. Through an interplay between theory and empirical data, the study resulted in a possible conceptualisation of cosmopolitan soft skills, consisting of the four core skills of attention, acceptance, respect, and responsibility as well as 78 other skills organised into four main categories. Provided the critical realist stance taken, the results are believed to be of a flexible and ever-changing but universal nature that facilitate future research into the educability of cosmopolitan soft skills and the empirical realisation of human flourishing.

Keywords

flourishing, cosmopolitan soft skills, critical realism, positive psychology capabilities approach, cosmopolitanism

Article Details

How to Cite
Rósa, B. (2020). Cosmopolitan soft skills: self- and social awareness fostering human flourishing. Dyskursy Młodych Andragogów/Adult Education Discourses, (21), 220-236. https://doi.org/10.34768/dma.vi21.528

References

  1. Agenor C., Conner N. & Aroian K. (2017), Flourishing: an evolutionary concept analysis, “Issues in Mental Health Nursing”, Vol. 38(11), https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2017.1355945.
  2. Anand P., Hunter G. & Smith R. (2005), Capabilities and well-being: Evidence based on the Sen Nussbaum approach to welfare, “Social Indicators Research”, Vol. 74(1), pp. 9-55.
  3. Appiah K.A. (2006), Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, W.W. Norton and Company, New York.
  4. Balcar J. (2016), Is it better to invest in hard or soft skills?, “Economic and Labour Relations Review”, Vol. 27(4), pp. 453-470.
  5. Bengtsson M. (2016), How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis, “NursingPlus Open”, Vol. 2, pp. 8-14.
  6. Choo S.S. (2018), Approaching twenty-first century education from a cosmopolitan perspective, “Journal of Curriculum Studies”, Vol. 50(2), https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2017.1313316.
  7. Coffey J.K., Wray-Lake L., Mashek D. & Branand B. (2016), A multi-study examination of well being theory on college and community samples, “Journal of Happiness Studies”, Vol. 17(1), pp. 187-211.
  8. Crosbie V. (2014), Capabilities for intercultural dialogue, “Language and Intercultural Communication”, Vol. 14(1), http://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2013.866126.
  9. Danermark B., Ekström M., Jakobsen L. & Karlsson J.C. (2002), Explaining society: Critical realism in the social sciences, Routledge, London.
  10. Diener E. (2000), Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index, “American Psychologist”, Vol. 55(1), pp. 34-43.
  11. Giovanola B. (2005), Personhood and human richness: Good and well-being in the capability approach and beyond, “Review of Social Economy”, Vol. 63(2), pp. 249-267.
  12. Graneheim U.H., Lindgren B. & Lundman B. (2017), Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper, “Nurse Education”, Vol. 56, pp. 29-34.
  13. Hansen D.T. (2011), The Teacher and the World: A Study of Cosmopolitanism as Education, Routledge, New York.
  14. Hansen D.T. (2017), Cosmopolitanism “as” education: A philosophy for educators in our time, “Religious Education”, Vol. 112(3), pp. 207-216.
  15. Harvey D.L. (2002), Agency and community: A critical realist paradigm, “Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour”, Vol. 32(2), pp. 163-194.
  16. Held D., McGrew A., Goldblatt D. & Perraton J. (2000), Global transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture, in: Politics at the Edge: Political Studies Association Yearbook Series, C. Pierson & S. Tormey (eds.), Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 14-28.
  17. Kleingeld P. & Brown E. (2014), Cosmopolitanism, in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/cosmopolitanism/.
  18. Koggel C. (2013), Is the capability approach a sufficient challenge to distributive accounts of global justice?, “Journal of Global Ethics”, Vol. 9(2), http://doi.org/10.1080/17449626.2013.818458.
  19. Nelson J.M. & Slife B.D. (2017), A new positive psychology: A critique of the movement based on early Christian thought, “The Journal of Positive Psychology”, Vol. 12(5), pp. 459-467.
  20. Nussbaum M.C. (2000), Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  21. Nussbaum M.C. (2011), Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  22. Papastephanou M. (2005), Globalisation, globalism and cosmopolitanism as an educational ideal, “Educational Philosophy and Theory”, Vol. 37(4), pp. 533-551.
  23. Robeyns L. (2005), The capability approach: A theoretical survey, “Journal of Human Development”, Vol. 6(1), pp. 93-114.
  24. Robeyns I. (2016), The capability approach, in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2016/entries/capability-approach/ [15.01.2019].
  25. Rönnström N. (2012), From globalist to cosmopolitan learning: On the reflexive modernization of teacher education, “Ethics and Global Politics”, Vol. 5(4), pp. 193-216.
  26. Rönnström N. (2015), Educating competitive teachers for a competitive nation? “Policy Futures in Education”, Vol. 13(6), pp. 732-750.
  27. Schotanus-Dijkstra M., Pieterse M.E., Drossaert C.H.C., Westerhof G.J., de Graaf R., ten Have M., Walburg J.A. & Bohlmeijer E.T. (2016), What factors are associated with flourishing? Results from a large representative national sample, “Journal of Happiness Studies”, Vol. 17, pp. 1351-1370.
  28. Schreier M. (2012), Qualitative content analysis in practice, Sage, London.
  29. Seligman M.E.P. & Csíkszentmihályi M. (2000), Positive psychology: An introduction, “American Psychologist”, Vol. 55(1), pp. 5-14.
  30. Sen A. (1999), Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  31. Sen A. (2005), Human rights and capabilities, “Journal of Human Development”, Vol. 6(2), pp. 151-166.
  32. Walker M. & Boni A. (2013), Human development and capabilities. Re-imagining the university of the twenty-first century, Routledge, New York.
  33. Wilson-Strydom M. & Walker M. (2015), A capabilities-friendly conceptualisation of flourishing in and through education, “Journal of Moral Education”, Vol. 44, pp. 310-324.